Women live longer than Men?
If one does not consider the many women who die while giving birth or in pregnancy, the female human life expectancy is considerably higher than those of men, who, on average, consume more tobacco, alcohol and drugs than females. In most countries many more men than women commit suicide. In general, men are more aggressive than women and thus are more likely to be murdered. In wars, many men die in combat as soldiers. Men tend to take more risks than females when they drive cars or motorcycles.
However, some argue that shorter male life expectancy is merely another manifestation of the general rule, in all mammal species, that larger individuals tend on average to have shorter lives.If small body size is a result of poor nutrition and not of genetics, then the rule is the other way round: better nourished people are taller and live longer.
Small dog breeds like poodles and dachshunds can reach 15 years of age, while the big breeds like German shepherds seldom reach 10 years of age.
Growth hormones and male sex hormones (anabolics) like testosterone as well as the most important anabolic hormone , insulin (see: caloric restriction), that is released after eating , shorten the lifespan, possibly by upregulating metabolism and thus causing more oxidative stress. Eunuchs have a higher life expectany than men with testicles, yet they tend to be obese, which shortens their life.
In their menstuation cycle females regularly lose some blood, which rids them of toxic heavy metals and of iron, which causes oxidative stress. Human females have two X-Chromosomes while males have only one, thus males are more prone for X-linked hereditary diseases than females.
Only about a fourth of the variations that determine how long we live can be blamed on genetics. The other 75 percent appear to be associated with risk factors we can control. For example, a new study says lifestyle choices by men in the early elderly years – including weight control, regular exercise and not smoking – go a long way in determining those that will live to reach age 90.
Study included people up to 65 but probably works for senior citizens, too
June 28, 2007 – It is probably easier than most people think to lower the risk of heart problems and add years to their lives. A new study finds that just four simple healthy behaviors can do the trick and it works even if one starts late in life. Although this study only included people from age 45 through 64, there seems to be no reason not to assume it would also work for senior citizens. Read more...
Twice during the first year and then once each following year through 2006, they completed a questionnaire asking about changes in habits, health status or ability to do daily tasks.
A total of 970 men (41 percent) lived to age 90 or older. Several modifiable biological and behavioral factors were associated with survival to this exceptional age.
“Smoking, diabetes, obesity and hypertension significantly reduced the likelihood of a 90-year life span, while regular vigorous exercise substantially improved it,” the authors write.
“Furthermore, men with a life span of 90 or more years also had better physical function, mental well-being, and self-perceived health in late life compared with men who died at a younger age.
“Adverse factors associated with reduced longevity—smoking, obesity and sedentary lifestyle—also were significantly associated with poorer functional status in elderly years.”
The researchers estimate that a 70-year-old man who did not smoke and had normal blood pressure and weight, no diabetes and exercised two to four times per week had a 54 percent probability of living to age 90.
Older Americans are in reasonably good health overall, but there are striking differences by age and by race and ethnicity. Almost half of HRS participants ages 55 to 64, but only about one quarter of those age 65 and older, say they are in very good or excellent health. White respondents report very good or excellent health at a rate almost double that of Blacks and Hispanics. Click to story....
However, if he had adverse factors, his probability of living to age 90 was reduced to the following amount:
● Sedentary lifestyle, 44 percent
● Hypertension (high blood pressure), 36 percent
● Obesity, 26 percent
● Smoking, 22 percent
● Three factors, such as sedentary lifestyle, obesity and diabetes, 14 percent
● Five factors, 4 percent
“Although the impact of certain midlife mortality [death] risks in elderly years is controversial, our study suggests that many remain important, at least among men,” the authors conclude. “Thus, our results suggest that healthy lifestyle and risk management should be continued in elderly years to reduce mortality and disability.”